Decoding PET CT

The PET CT Scan is one of the sought after diagnostic tests. Lets find out more on what is a PET CT and why is it preferred over other diagnostic tests, such as an MRI, CT Scan or an ultrasound.

What is a PET Scan ?

A PET Scan is a nuclear medicine technique which produces images of the human body at a molecular level.

A PET CT, uses radioactive tracers in conjugation with isotopes such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon etc. These radio isotopes act at a molecular level and work as probes which seek out disease, cancer in the body while giving out radio signals which are captures to produce an image.

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PET CT Scan
PET CT

This can help in diagnosis of even the tiniest lesions, thus increasing the accuracy of investigation, subsequent diagnosis and hence cancer treatment.

A PET CT Scan, therefore reveals a lot more about the body than standard diagnostic tests such as MRI, CT Scan or an ultrasound.

What happens during a PET Scan ?

A PET CT Scan, is always on a price appointment basis as the radio isotopes, having a a very short half life need to be brought in just before the scan.

A PET CT, is usually carried out empty stomach on overnight or ateast 6 hrs fasting.

The creatinine levels, need to checked prior to conducting the PET CT by a simple blood tests called KFT or Kidney function test

If the creatinine levels are in order, the patient is  tested for blood sugar and if found in order , the patient is given an injection of glucose with a radioactive tracer.

After the injection, the patient is made to rest for about 90 mins and then taken for the actual scan which takes about 30 mins to 45 mins depending upon the imaging required.

During the scan, the patient is made to lie on a comfortable table that moves slowly through the ring like PET scanner.

After the scan, the patient can leave immediately. However close contact with others especially children and pregnant women is best avoided for the next 4-6 hrs.

It is also good to drink a lot of water, to flush out the radio active tracer from the body.

The imaging can be seen by the doctors and the nuclear medicine specialists almost immediately for evaluation, though a formal written report takes a day to be handed over to the patient.

Are there any side effects or discomfort due to the scan ?

There are no sid effects or discomfort due to the PET  CT Scan, except the minor prick while injecting the tracer.

The PET CT scanner, also does not make any sounds while the scan is going on unlike a few other diagnostics tests.

What are the diseases for which a PET CT Scan can be used ?

The most common use case for a PET CT Scan is for detecting and treating cancer. However other applications, include diagnosing cardiac or heart problems and also neurology.

Cancer/Oncology :

During the initial stages of the disease, a PET CT helps distinguish between benign and malignant disease and also cancer staging, that is knowing  and determining the stage of the disease and also its characteristics, which further helps oncologists decide the best treatment option for the patient.

During course of treatment, it helps determine response to therapy or cancer treatment and if the metabolic activity decreases on the PET CT Scan, the oncologists know that the drugs being administered are working.

On the other hand, if the metabolic activity on the scan increases, it indicates that the treatment option is losing its efficacy or is not working and helps oncologists change the line of treatment to benefit the patient.

Cardiac Care: Post a heart attack, a PET CT Scan can be used to determine myopathy , need for CABG or open heart surgery and if there would be any benefit from CABG or would a heart transplant or an LVAD be a better treatment option.

Neurology: Alzeheimer’s at an early stage can be diagnosed using a PET Scan leading to early intervention.

A PET CT Scan helps locate tumours, distinguish between benign and malignant tumours and also scar tissue for brain surgery.

A PET CT  is also useful for treatment of epileptic seizures. It can help locate the origin and focus of seizures and assess sites for intervention if any is required.

What is the difference between a PET CT and an MRI or a CT ?

A CT or an MRI works on the physical level and can give the size and location of the tumour with accuracy.

However since both tests donot work on the molecular level, they cannot indicate metabolic activity of the tumour which only a PET CT Scan can indicate, thereby making a PET CT, a diagnostic test of choice for oncologists, cardiologists, cardiac or heart surgeons and interventional neurologists.

To know more on PET CT Scans, cost and implications, from the best cancer hospitals in India, write to us on info@ihealthkonnect.com or send us a query.

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Decoding CyberKnife, for cancer treatment and benign tumours

We often get queries on CyberKnife and what is CyberKnife used for ?

CyberKnife is an excellent treatment option for treating cancer’s such as prostate cancer, gliomas ,brain cancer, kidney cancer, lung cancer, spine cancer, cancer of the pancreas, head and neck cancer, liver cancer, early stage -localised breast cancer and several types of malignant tumours, benign tumours and several other medical conditions.
CyberKnife delivers stereostatic radiation( SBRT) with extreme precision and a tissue margin of 1-5mm

Non invasive, CybeKnife vaporises a brain tumour

Cyber knife is totally non invasive and offers hope for inoperable localised cancers such as small cell lung cancer,for inoperable lesions where there is no other alternative for the patient to be treated.
CyberKnife can spot the exact size, shape and location of the tumor and delivers highly concentrated beams of radiation with precision ranging from 1 to 5 mm and this leads to minimal damage and bleeding.

Since CyberKnife treatment is totally non invasive, it is used for treatment of inoperable cancers as an alternate to surgery or as an alternative to surgery to minimise trauma, avoid complications and reduce risk.

Most patients can be treated several times with the CyberKnife and even treated again or retreated with minimal side effects leading to a better quality of life.For example for prostate cancer, even for a repeat surgery, CyberKnife can be used very successfully.

CyberKnife treatment is FDA approved and can spot patient movement even while breathing. The radiation beams can be aimed from several directions, thereby never losing the precision which is hall mark of a CyberKnife treatment.

CyberKnife treatment usually gets completed in 3 to 5 sessions spread over a week. Most patients can lead normal lives post CyberKnife treatment Most CyberKnife treatments are covered by insurance providers all over the world.

To know more on CyberKnife and how it works, click here.

Since the treatment involves a high degree of expertise, CyberKnife treatment is not offered by most hospitals.

The stage, location and size of the tumour or the cancer plays an important role, hence multiple teams of doctors and oncologists need to be involved before a decision on  use of CyberKnife as treatment option can be arrived.
To connect to the best hospitals in India, offering CyberKnife, and to know if CyberKnife is a treatment option for your medical condition, send us an email on info@ihealthkonnect.com or Consult Now.

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Stomach Cancer- Why does it catch us unawares ?

Stomach cancer is defined as the growth of cancerous cells in the stomach lining.
According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), there will be approximately 24,590 new cases of stomach cancer every year.

Stomach cancer
Clinical stages of stomach cancer. How stomach cancer spreads?

Stomach cancer is often left undiagnosed because it doesn’t have many early symptoms – it is diagnosed when cancer spreads to other parts of the human body.

A few early signs are:
Nausea and Vomiting: Nausea is defined as a feeling of queasiness at the back of your throat or stomach. Vomiting, on the other hand, is defined as the contraction of your stomach muscles that push the digested food back through your oesophagus. Both nausea and vomiting may be early symptoms of stomach cancer especially if one’s blood shows in the vomit.
Bloating: If one faces bloating, which doesn’t ease up and persistent, it calls for a visit to the doctor and an ultrasound at least to start with.

H. Pylori Infection: If one suffers from frequent indigestion, bloating,one must get tested for bacterial Infection with H pylori, as it is the most prominent indication of people developing stomach cancer later.

Research has shown that people suffering from H.Pylori infections have a much incidence of stomach cancers.

Weight loss: Stomach tumours cause blockages, preventing food from passing into the stomach or into the intestines causing loss of appetite. Similarly, stomach cancer causes energy from food to be burned at a faster rate which combined with nutritional loss causes weight loss.

Stomach Pain: Unexplained stomach pain , the kind which persists is also a warning sign that something may be wrong.

Frequent HeartBurns:  Frequent heartburns could be because of ulcers and may also indicate that everything is not ok.

Inability to eat: As the tumour progresses, it blocks various parts of the digestive system. Coupled with body’s inability to digest food,  there is a reduced appetite, which at a later stage is often total inability to eat and digest food.

As the symptoms are so generic, they are often missed leading to diagnosis at a much later stage when the cancer has spread or metastatised to other parts of the body.

Is there a co-relation between our habits and stomach cancer?
Food: Food and stomach cancer have a direct relationship. The right dietary intake can lower the risk of stomach cancer. Storage of food through refrigeration instead of by smoking, salting and pickling also reduces the risk because the nitrates and nitrites in smoked food increase the risk of stomach cancer.
Smoking: The use of tobacco increases the risk of stomach cancer. It is said that the rate of risk of stomach cancer is doubled in smokers as compared to non-smokers. This is because smoking reduces the production of natural substances that protect the stomach and duodenum from tissue damage. Additionally, smoking promotes the duodenum reflux and increases the acidity of the duodenum making it vulnerable to H. Pylori bacteria. Smoking also constricts the blood vessels in the stomach reducing the blood flow in the stomach. All these mechanisms strengthen the link between stomach cancer and smoking.

Treatment of stomach cancer involves, surgery if detected at an early stage, followed by chemotherapy as the 1st line of treatment.

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Cancer Treatment- Why travelling to India is a good option

Cancer Treatment- Why travelling to India is a good option Cancer Treatment in India:

Have you just been diagnosed with cancer and do not know what to do? Have you searched for high quality cancer treatments locally and found none? Recent research has shown that cancer is one of the world’s most feared terminal illnesses. This fear has lead to many people to believe that the disease cannot be effectively treated. However, cancer medical specialists argue that the disease can easily be treated and controlled if it is detected during its early stages. Many cancer patients have died because of they were unable to raise the amount of money that was required for treatment abroad. But there is a ray of hope for many cancer patients who might be struggling to raise the abnormal medical fees for them to be treated. This article will offer all the information about Cancer treatment, cost in India compared to other countries in the whole world.

Reasons why seeking cancer treatment in India is the best option ever:

There has been a major exodus of cancer patients refusing to be treated in local hospitals in their countries of origin. This has made India as the leading cancer treatment provider in the whole world. India has one of the best world cancer treatment facilities in the world. We investigated some of the major reasons for this mass exodus of cancer patients to India and found out the following observations as discussed below;

Lower cost of treatment

Unlike in many countries around the world where cancer treatment is expensive, cancer treatments,cost in India is mush affordable. Despite the kind of cancer your patient might be having, taking him to India for treatment would save you a lot of money. Recent cancer treatments showed that it is only India where you can access high quality services at very low costs. There were some countries where the researched showed that the cost of flight plus cancer treatments cost only costs half that would be charged at the local hospitals. There are many cancer treatment hospitals in India which greatly contributes to the reduction of cancer treatments, cost in India.

Highly qualified Cancer specialists

It is a known that Indians are well gifted in the field of medicine and surgery. India has produced one of the most renowned surgeons and medical practitioners that have high competency levels in the filed. This also applies to cancer where most cancer specialists are Indians, This makes travelling to India for cancer treatment as the best option compared to local hospitals.

Modernized cancer equipments

India has the latest digital equipments for detecting and screening cancer that are not easy to find other countries around the World. The equipment uses one of the latest technologies for diagnosing cancer among the patients. The equipments make the detection and diagnosis of cancer related ailmets to be worked faster and efficient. This is why traveling to India for cancer treatment would be the best cancer treatment option that being treated at local hospitals.

CONCLUSION

It is now evident that cancer treatment, cost in India is lower compared to other countries in the whole world. This article is a must read for people who might be having cancer patients at home who need medical attention but are stranded due to high cost of treatment in local hospitals.