Cause narrowing of arteries- As the pressure of blood flowing from your arteries increases. it damages the inner lining of your arteries. Fat from food collects in the damaged part of your arteries causing further narrowing and damage. Eventually arteries become less elastic limiting proper blood supply to the body.
Coronary heart disease- As the arteries get damaged due to narrowing, a high blood pressure can lead to sudden chest pains and subsequent heart attack or even arrhythmias.
Enlarged Left Heart– As high blood pressure forces the heart to work harder to pump blood , the left ventricle or the left heart becomes thicker and tougher increasing risk of heart attack, heart failure or a cardiac arrest.
Heart Failure- Over a period of time, the heart becomes, weaker, less efficient and begins to fail.
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The thyroid gland is present below the Adam’s in the front of the neck. It is a butterfly shaped organ. The thyroid gland produce hormones that regulate the body’s response to hot and cold senses, the energy level of the body, and weight and appetite.
Thyroid cancer in children is rare and often curable. Exposure to head and neck irradiation results in an increased risk. Only one in every 1,200 children under 20 are affected by thyroid cancer in the United States each year.
There is nearly 95%. survival rates among children.
Types of Thyroid Cancer:
Thyroid cancer is further divided into following four types.
1. Papillary thyroid carcinoma
2. Follicular thyroid carcinoma
3. Medullary thyroid carcinoma
4. Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas
Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer:
Sign and Symptoms include trouble breathing, trouble swallowing and changes in a child’s voice.
Thyroid Cancer Treatment:
Thyroid cancer is commonly treated by one or a combination of treatments such as Surgery, Hormonal therapy, Radioactive iodine (radioiodine) therapy, External-beam radiation therapy, Chemotherapy and Targeted therapy.
Cancer of Connective tissue is known as Soft Tissue Sarcoma. It includes various tissues of the body including muscle, fat, and fibrous tissue. The most common sarcomas in children are Rhabdomyosarcoma (muscle), Osteosarcoma (bone cells), and Ewing Sarcoma (in or outside of bone). However, about there are more than 50 other types of soft tissue sarcomas that affect around 900 children each year
Soft Tissue Sarcomas is further categorized as following:
1. Synovial sarcoma
2. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor
3. Embryonal sarcoma of the liver
4. Desmoplastic round cell tumor
5. Desmoid tumors
6. Rhabdoid tumors
7. Epithelioid sarcoma
9. Alveolar soft part sarcoma
11. Undifferentiated Sarcoma
Hypertension damages our heart, brain and kidneys and quietly so for years, before high blood pressure symptoms develop.
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a cancer of muscles cells in children. It is also known as cancer of soft tissue. In the United States, about 350 new cases are diagnosed each year in children under 20 years of age.
Almost two-thirds of pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma cases are diagnosed in children under 6. RMS can arise in any muscle of the body, but the most common sites are adjacent to the base of the skull (Para meningeal), around the eye (orbital), head, neck, cheek or lip, arms, legs (extremities), Urinary, reproductive organs (genitourinary system), bladder, vagina, prostate and soft tissue around the testicles.
Rhabdomyosarcoma is further categorized into two major subtypes, based on the tumor cell microscopic physiology:
1. Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS): It is the most common type (60-70% of cases) in younger children.
2. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS): It is commonly found in adolescents.
Symptoms of Rhabdomyosarcoma:
Rhabdomyosarcoma Signs and Symptoms show growing mass or swelling, blood in the urine, difficulty urinating, bleeding from the vagina.
For tumors presenting adjacent to the base of skull, the cancer can cause facial asymmetry, blurred vision, difficulty breathing, ear bleeding or discharge, headaches and facial pain.
Swelling or bulging around the eye.
Extremity tumors (those in the arms or legs) often present as a rapidly enlarging, firm mass.
Treatment in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
Skin cancer is generally called Melanoma which begins in melanocytes.
These are the cells that give pigment (color) to skin, hair, and eyes. Most melanomas occur in the skin, although they can also occur in the eye. Although, melanoma is not the most common skin cancer but it is the most serious one.
About 60,000 cases are diagnosed each year in the United States and about 450 of these patients are under 20.
Signs and Symptoms of Skin Cancer:
The warning signs of skin melanoma classified as A B C D E’s of melanoma and it include:
A for asymmetry: The two halves of the mole do not match.
B for border irregularity: fuzzy and irregular border of moles.
C is for color variegation: In addition to brown or black, other colors are present.
D is for diameter: 0.6 cm or about ¼ of an inch.
E is for evolving: The mole has changed in size, shape or color, Bleeding moles, itches and developed a break in the skin.
Treatment for Skin Cancer:
Most common treatment of skin cancer include:
Photodynamic therapy (PDT)
- Bleeding between periods.
- Bleeding after sexual intercourse.
- Bleeding in post-menopausal women.
- Discomfort during sexual intercourse.
- Smelly vaginal discharge.
- Vaginal discharge tinged with blood.
- Pelvic pain
Cervical Cancer Treatment options depend upon stage of cancer and can be surgical or chemotherapy.
Cost of Cancer Treatment would vary from US$ 6000 for removal of cervix to US$ 1200 per cycle of chemotherapy.
If you have a loved one who has been diagnosed with cancer of the cervix.
Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is the most common inherited disorder of haemoglobin worldwide and affects nearly 100,000 people in the United States and is rampant in Africa
Every pregnancy carries 25% risk when both partners carry a sickle cell gene
Diagnosing Sickle Cell Anemia
HPLC or High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is the standard tests for diagnosing Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). The test separates different forms of proteins in a column and can detect mutant forms of hemoglobin.
What is the treatment for sickle cell anemia?
Treatment choices for sickle cell anemia are the drug hydroxyurea and chronic red blood cell transfusions. These treatments may lessen the complications of sickle cell disease, but they do not cure the disease.
Bone Marrow Transplant is the only cure for sickle cell anemia treatment at this time. Transplants from matched related donors offer about an 85 percent chance of cure.
All sickle cell anemia patients do not need a bone marrow transplant. However the younger the patient, the higher the chances of cure after a bone marrow transplant.
With age as organ damage increases, chances of a successful transplant decrease.
Indications for a transplant are
- Frequent Pain
- Acute Chest Syndrome which means the patient suffers from pneumonia, frequent chest infections
- Splenic Sequestration which causes sudden and severe anemia, paleness, and the haemoglobin may actually drop to as low as 1-3g/dl which may even result in shock and death within a few hours of onset.
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Bone cancer is known as Osteosarcoma. During the development stage, destruction or bone damage starts in immature bone cells and result in weakening of the bone.
Cancer development in soft tissue outside the bone is very rare phenomena. This type of cancer most often begins in the thigh or shin bones. Upper arm bone, close to the shoulder is most common region for the development of cancer.
Osteosarcoma affects about 400 children and adolescents under the age of 20 each year, and it most commonly affects adolescents during the growth spurt.
Symptoms of Osteosarcoma:
Signs and Symptoms are pain in the bone or joint, a painless swelling or a noticeable mass in the arm or leg, a broken bone that occurs without injury or with minimal injury, stiffness or swelling of joints (uncommon), back pain or loss of bowel or bladder control related to a tumor in the pelvis
Chemotherapy is an important part of treatment for Osteosarcoma, other treatments include radiotherapy and surgery.