As we continue our conversation on Precision Medicine for cancer, a popular therapy used to treat NET tumours or Neuro Endocrine Tumours is PRRT or Peptide Receptor Radionuclide therapy.
Neuroendocrine tumours are a rare form of cancer and originate from Neuro endocrine cells in the body and hence the name.They are different from adenocarcinoma’s and often do not do not respond well to chemotherapy, the 1st line of treatment for most cancers.
By administering radioactive protein lutetium octreotate, it is possible to treat NET tumours or neuro endocrine carcinoma with precision and offset progression of disease.
In PRRT a peptide or a cell targeting protein is combined with a small amount of radio active nuclide creating what is called as a radio peptide. The radio peptide when injected into the patients blood stream travels and binds to a neuro endocrine tumour, delivering a high dose of radiation to the tumours. This also limits damage to the nearby healthy tissue and hence lesser and milder side effects than chemotherapy.
What kind of cancers can be treated by PRRT?
Along with Neuroendocrine tumours, carcinoids, islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, small cell carcinoma of the lung a form of lung cancer, pheochromocytoma (a rare tumor that forms in the adrenal glands), gastro-enteropancreatic (stomach cancer , intestine cancer and pancreas) neuroendocrine tumors, and rare thyroid cancers that are unresponsive to treatment with radio iodine are often treated with PRRT.
Role of PRRT is also being explored for treatment of prostate cancer.
When is a patient a candidate for PRRT ?
Patients with following conditions are often proposed for PRRT
- When neuro endocrine tumours are not responsive to other lines of cancer treatment
- When surgical removal of tumours is not possible at current stage, PRRT may be used to reduce size of the tumours.
- PRRT is also a treatment option for last stage inoperable cancers when metastasis has set in.
The main aim of PRRT is then to slow down progression of disease, offer relief and prolong life.
However, not all neuroendocrine tumours respond to PRRT. First an OctreoScan is done. If the patient is found to have a positive OctreoScan and meets other requirements, PRRT is proposed.
What happens during PRRT ?
For patients having a positive octreoscan, to start with an amino acid solution is delivered to protect the kidneys.
As most net tumours have a lot of a specific type of surface receptor, a protein called somatostatin. Octreotide, is a lab version of somastostatin. During PRRT, a dose of radio nuclides such as Lutetium, Yttrium are often combined with octreotide and injected into the blood stream.
Molecular imaging and scans follow to see whether the radio peptide has latched on of the tumour sites correctly.
The entire session usually lasts for about 4 hrs and is often done as an out patient procedure.
The main goals of PRRT hence are to provide symptom relief, to stop or slow tumor progression and to improve overall survival.
Advantages of PRRT ?
PRRT along with other molecular therapies or targeted therapies offer excellent results as they are tailor made keeping in mind molecular properties of the tumour and also biologic characteristics of the patient.
PRRT is offered in Germany , USA, UK and other developed countries at a significant cost, In India, a single session of PRRT costs approx USD 6300.
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