Poop comes in all shades, often a result of what we eat and chemical changes due to bile as our food gets digested.
Normal poop color is brown though sometimes if we eat green leafy vegetables it could be on the greener side. A sudden color change could be indicative of a health problem.
Know what your poop color indicates and when it could mean trouble:
Green: Green colored stool could be due to iron supplements, green leafy vegetables, however, it could also mean that the food is moving too quickly through the large intestine as a result of which bile doesn’t have the time to break down the food completely.
White, Clay or Grey: Whitish, grey or clay-colored stools indicate lack of bile and often indicate a problem with gallbladder or liver. The problems could be as varied as liver cirrhosis needing a liver transplant or liver failure due to hepatitis A, Hep B or Hep C.
Yellow: Unless, you are having too many yellow colored liquids, yellow stools indicates, excess fat or poor fat absorption.
Poor fat absorption could be due to blocked bile ducts, a problem with the pancreas, and may indicate lack of enzymes for food digestion or may even point towards chronic pancreatitis, celiac disease.
Red: Unless you have been eating beets, carrots, tomatoes, cranberries, food with red coloring, bright red colored stool may indicate bleeding due to hemorrhoids, anal fissure, and even colon cancer or cancer of the rectum or even bowel cancer.
Black: Black colored stools, may indicate bleeding from the intestines, stomach which may even indicate stomach cancer and need an immediate follow-up call with a doctor.
A diet rich in blueberries or black licorice, iron supplements, bismuth subsalicylate could be other exceptions.
To get a 2nd opinion on your medical problems, send us a query or write to us on firstname.lastname@example.org
Robotics or computer assisted surgeries are helping patients with advanced cancer care. Robotic surgery effectively means’ robotic systems designed specifically to assist surgeons perform, complex surgical procedures with precision, control and dexterity.
These are often difficult to reach cancerous tumours, which the surgeons are able to view with increased vision and hence excise with precious thanks to video assisted robotic systems.
In general, the surgeon uses the robotic systems, arms to perform the surgery instead of his own hands. Most good systems come equipped with cameras and 3D imaging to enable surgeons to view deeper locations inside the body and reach the diseased tissue with greater range of motion and precision.
Cyberknife, Gamma Knife, Novalis, Da Vinci are various forms of robotics systems available to assist surgeons.
Fibroids affect 1 out of every 4 women, atleast once in their lifetime. Usually affecting women in the age group pf 30-50, fibroids can be as small as a pea or as big as a melon.
Fibroids increase or decrease in size and can even go away. Fibroids are sensitive to oestrogen levels and tend to swell when the level of oestrogen is high for example in heavier women typically weighing over 70 kgs or more.
On the other hand, fibroids can shrink when the level of oestrogen goes down and hence tend to shrink on weight loss or post menopause.
Fibroids are also called Uterine Myomas, Fibromyomas or Leiomyomas. Most Fibroids grow within the muscle tissue of the womb.
What are the common problems associated with fibroids ?
Heavy, Painful Periods: Bleeding is often heavier with fibroids and is often accompanied with pain. Besides affecting quality of life, heavy periods may lead to anaemia.
Bloating, Swelling: Large fibroids, may lead to swelling in the lower abdomen and discomfort in the lower abdomen and lower back.
Painful Intercourse: Fibroids growing near the vagina or the cervix may lead to pain during intercourse.
Bladder Problems: If a fibroid presses on the bladder which is in front of the womb, it may cause frequent urination.
Bowel Problems: Though extremely rare, if a fibroid presses on the bowel, which lies behind the womb, it may cause constipation.
Infertility: If the fibroids grow into the cavity of the womb, they can sometimes block fallopian tubes which can hamper conception and cause Infertility. In such cases an IVF often helps, post fibroid treatment.
Miscarriages: Though rare, sometimes fibroids may cause repeat miscarriages.
Early labour and possibility of a C-section: Sometimes fibroids, may result in an early labour and even a C -section instead of a normal delivery.
There are several ways to treat fibroids, which includes medical management and also surgical options.
Surgical options for treatment of fibroids are:
Hysterectomy:is removal of the womb when fibroids are causing symptoms and pain. If fibroid are small in size, the womb can be removed via the vagina and if the fibroids are large, then the womb may need to be removed via an incision in the lower abdomen.
Myomectomy: is surgical removal of fibroids and can be done either laparoscopically or hysteroscopically( through the vagina). In myomectmy, the fibroids are removed but the womb is left.
Uterine Artery Embolisation: can also help with treatment of fibroids.
To know more, send us a query or write to us on info@ihealthkonnect.
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Prostate cancer, is curable when detected well in time. Survival is often over decades. With newer treatment options coming in, there is now hope for last stage prostate cancer.
Nicknamed magic bullet therapy, now targeted alpha therapy offers hope for even metastasized, castration resistant prostate cancer( mCRPC and has changed the way metastatic prostate cancer can now be treated.
How does Magic Bullet Therapy work for Prostate Cancer ?
Prostate-specific membrane antigen radiology ( PSMA-RLT) with 177 Lu, holds great potential as the Prostate Specific Member antigen peptide binds itself specifically to prostate cancer cells but not to normal healthy cells. With a range of 0.1mm, this method allows selective irradiation, killing cancerous cells with minimal damage to healthy tissue.
The Alpha emitters work by inducing clusters of DNA damage such as double- stranded breaks and cellular cell modifications which leads to destruction of cancerous cells due to cell cycle arrest.
To know more about Targeted Alpha Therapy for Prostate Cancer, send us an email on email@example.com or click to send us a query.
The PET CT Scan is one of the sought after diagnostic tests. Let’s find out more about what is a PET CT and why is it preferred over other diagnostic tests, such as an MRI, CT Scan or an ultrasound.
What is a PET Scan?
A PET Scan is a nuclear medicine technique which produces images of the human body at a molecular level.
A PET CT uses radioactive tracers in conjugation with isotopes such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon etc. These radioisotopes act at a molecular level and work as probes which seek out disease, cancer in the body while giving out radio signals which are captured to produce an image.
This can help in the diagnosis of even the tiniest lesions, thus increasing the accuracy of the investigation, subsequent diagnosis and hence cancer treatment.
A PET CT Scan, therefore reveals a lot more about the body than standard diagnostic tests such as MRI, CT Scan or an ultrasound.
What happens during a PET Scan?
A PET CT Scan, is always on a price appointment basis as the radioisotopes, having a very short half-life need to be brought in just before the scan.
A PET CT, is usually carried out empty stomach on overnight or at least 6 hrs fasting.
The creatinine levels, need to checked prior to conducting the PET CT by simple blood tests called KFT or Kidney function test
If the creatinine levels are in order, the patient is tested for blood sugar and if found in order, the patient is given an injection of glucose with a radioactive tracer.
After the injection, the patient is made to rest for about 90 mins and then taken for the actual scan which takes about 30 mins to 45 mins depending on the imaging required.
During the scan, the patient is made to lie on a comfortable table that moves slowly through the ring like PET scanner.
After the scan, the patient can leave immediately. However close contact with others especially children and pregnant women is best avoided for the next 4-6 hrs.
It is also good to drink a lot of water, to flush out the radioactive tracer from the body.
The imaging can be seen by the doctors and the nuclear medicine specialists almost immediately for evaluation, though a formal written report takes a day to be handed over to the patient.
Are there any side effects or discomfort due to the scan?
There are no side effects or discomfort due to the PET CT Scan, except the minor prick while injecting the tracer.
The PET CT scanner also does not make any sounds while the scan is going on, unlike a few other diagnostics tests.
What are the diseases for which a PET CT Scan can be used?
The most common use case for a PET CT Scan is for detecting and treating cancer. However other applications, include diagnosing cardiac or heart problems and also neurology.
During the initial stages of the disease, a PET CT helps distinguish between benign and malignant disease and also cancer staging, that is knowing and determining the stage of the disease and also its characteristics, which further helps oncologists decide the best treatment option for the patient.
During the course of treatment, it helps determine response to therapy or cancer treatment and if the metabolic activity decreases on the PET CT Scan, the oncologists know that the drugs being administered are working.
On the other hand, if the metabolic activity on the scan increases, it indicates that the treatment option is losing its efficacy or is not working and helps oncologists change the line of treatment to benefit the patient.
Neurology: Alzheimer’s at an early stage can be diagnosed using a PET Scan leading to early intervention.
A PET CT Scan helps locate tumors, distinguish between benign and malignant tumors and also scar tissue for brain surgery.
A PET CT is also useful for the treatment of epileptic seizures. It can help locate the origin and focus of seizures and assess sites for intervention if any is required.
What is the difference between a PET CT and an MRI or a CT ?
A CT or an MRI works on the physical level and can give the size and location of the tumor with accuracy.
However since both tests do not work on the molecular level, they cannot indicate metabolic activity of the tumor which only a PET CT Scan can indicate, thereby making a PET CT, a diagnostic test of choice for oncologists, cardiologists, cardiac or heart surgeons and interventional neurologists.
To know more about, PET CT Scans, cost, and implications, from the best cancer hospitals in India, write to us on firstname.lastname@example.org or send us a query.
Infertility is defined as inability to conceive or carry a pregnancy to full term.
Infertility affects millions of women worldwide. IVF or assisted In vitro fertilisation is the answer to infertility problems for millions of women, unable to conceive naturally or carry a pregnancy full term.
We receive several queries on a daily basis on IVF. Here’s an attempt to answer the common questions on IVF treatment.
Q.When do I explore, IVF as an option for conception ?
Ans. If you are not able to conceive for an 1 year after unprotected intercourse is when IVF should be explored.
Q.How long does IVF treatment last ?
Ans. A successful IVF may need one cycle or a couple more cycles. Each IVF cycle takes 4-6 weeks to complete.
Q.What if I am ok but my husband is found sterile or has a very low sperm count?
Ans. In such a case donor sperms may be used. Please write to us for more information on email@example.com or click here to send us a query.
Q.What will happen if the quality of my own eggs is poor ?
Ans. If the quality of eggs is really poor, IVF can be carried out using donor eggs also, incase there is no other viable alternative.
Q.What I have fibroids ? Do they interfere with conception ?
Ans. Fibroids interfere with conception and are usually removed by laparoscopic fibroid surgery or myomectomy for better results.
To know cost of myomectomy, please email us on firstname.lastname@example.org or click here to send us a query.
Q. What if I have endometriosis ?
Ans. If you have an endometriotic cyst, it can be removed with laparoscopic surgery before you ahead with IVF treatment.
Q. What if I have had failed cycles of IVF already ?
Ans. ICSI, laser hatching, Embryoscope and IMSI are some of the options which give better results.
To know more on IVF treatment, or to get a 2nd medical opinion on your health problem, send us a query or write to us on email@example.com.
Childhood cancers or Paediatric cancers are biologically different from adult cancers.
They grow faster than most adult cancers.
Factors which trigger cancer or cause childhood cancers are different from those causing adult cancers for example smoking a leading cause of adult lung cancer is not a cause for childhood lung cancer.
Most Paediatric cancers are non hereditary and happen due genetic mutations of growing up cells, though pollution, exposure to radiation, chemicals are also contributory factors in a few cases.
Common cancers in children:
The most common childhood cancer is Leukemia or Blood Cancer. Of all types of blood cancers, ALL is the most common one. It affects children in the age group of 2-6 years.
Other common paediatric cancers are tumours of the brain, retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, lymphoma, tumours of the kidney, tumours of the adrenal gland, sarcomas , bone tumours etc.
Symptoms of Childhood Cancers:
Unusually High Fever
Bruise marks or blue marks on the body
Prolonged fever with no established cause
Unusual weight loss
Nose bleed, gum bleed
Swelling in the abdomen
Pale palor, accompanied with fever, body ache
Swelling in the neck or axilla.
Increase in size of lymph nodes, along with cough, fever, weight loss
Unusual Redness in the eye
Early morning vomiting, loss of appetite
If you notice any of these, it may be a good idea to plan a visit to the doctor.
Are Childhood cancers curable ?
As childhood cancers grow faster than adult cancers, they are also more responsive to chemotherapy and other forms of treatment.
Depending on the stage of cancer and the spread of cancer, a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation may be advised.
With advances in medical treatment, it is now possible to save limbs in bone cancers, eyes in retinoblastoma depending upon stage of cancer and response to treatment options.
Most blood cancers in children respond extremely well to chemotherapy and get cured.
Sedentary lifestyle, lack of exercise and adequate physical activity
What to do when you spot a stroke victim ?
A Stroke can be completely reversible if treated well in time. The time window for treatment is usually not more than a couple of hours from onset of symptoms.
Time is of essence for a stroke victim as many as 32000 cells die every minute of delay, leading to irrepairable damage with every minute of delay.
A CT scan or an MRI are first diagnostic tests and based on whether it is a clot that can be surgically removed or needs to be dissolved, or a leak or rupture of blood vessels, a neurologist or a neurosurgeon take over.
To get a 2nd opinion on your medical problems, send us an email at firstname.lastname@example.org
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World Obesity day is observed on 11 th Oct globally, to create awareness and find solutions to check the epidemic called “ Obesity”
Obesity is sometimes genetic but normally builds up over a period of time due to sedentary life style and excessive intake of calories, more than what are being burned by daily activities and exercise.
Obesityis usually defined as excess of body weight, atleast 20% higher than normal which has an adverse affect on the body.
It is normally calculated using a ratio of height to weight called as Body Mass Index ( BMI)
A person having a BMI( Body Mass Index) of over 30, is classified as “Obese”. A BMI between 25 and 30, classifies as “overweight”.
What causes Obesity ?
Obesity builds up largely due to a combination of factors, such as excessive intake of foods, lack of physical activity, intake of sterioids, certain types of medication, endocrine disorders, medication for mental illnesses and sometimes even genetic susceptibility. A genetic mutation in the FTO gene, significantly increases risk of obesity.
Other medical conditions, which lead to obesity are as follows:
Hypothyroidism caused by under activity of thyroid gland slows metabolism causes weight gain.
PCOD, or polycystic ovarian disease also leads to obesity. Vice versa, women who are over weight or obese often have PCOD.
Over production of hormone cortisol by adrenal glands also known as Cushing’s syndrome, leads to weight gain and full in the upper body, face and neck.
Prader-Willi syndrome, a rare condition which leads to constant eating also leads to obesity.
What are the medical complications associated with Obesity?
As we continue our conversation on Precision Medicine for cancer, a popular therapy used to treat NET tumours or Neuro Endocrine Tumours is PRRT or Peptide Receptor Radionuclide therapy. Neuroendocrine tumours are a rare form of cancer and originate from Neuro endocrine cells in the body and hence the name.They are different from adenocarcinoma’s and often do not do not respond well to chemotherapy, the 1st line of treatment for most cancers.
By administering radioactive protein lutetium octreotate, it is possible to treat NET tumours or neuro endocrine carcinoma with precision and offset progression of disease.
In PRRT a peptide or a cell targeting protein is combined with a small amount of radio active nuclide creating what is called as a radio peptide. The radio peptide when injected into the patients blood stream travels and binds to a neuro endocrine tumour, delivering a high dose of radiation to the tumours. This also limits damage to the nearby healthy tissue and hence lesser and milder side effects than chemotherapy.
What kind of cancers can be treated by PRRT?
Along with Neuroendocrine tumours, carcinoids, islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, small cell carcinoma of the lung a form of lung cancer, pheochromocytoma (a rare tumor that forms in the adrenal glands), gastro-enteropancreatic (stomach cancer , intestine cancer and pancreas) neuroendocrine tumors, and rare thyroid cancers that are unresponsive to treatment with radio iodine are often treated with PRRT.
Patients with following conditions are often proposed for PRRT
When neuro endocrine tumours are not responsive to other lines of cancer treatment
When surgical removal of tumours is not possible at current stage, PRRT may be used to reduce size of the tumours.
PRRT is also a treatment option for last stage inoperable cancers when metastasis has set in.
The main aim of PRRT is then to slow down progression of disease, offer relief and prolong life.
However, not all neuroendocrine tumours respond to PRRT. First an OctreoScan is done. If the patient is found to have a positive OctreoScan and meets other requirements, PRRT is proposed.
What happens during PRRT ?
For patients having a positive octreoscan, to start with an amino acid solution is delivered to protect the kidneys.
As most net tumours have a lot of a specific type of surface receptor, a protein called somatostatin. Octreotide, is a lab version of somastostatin. During PRRT, a dose of radio nuclides such as Lutetium, Yttrium are often combined with octreotide and injected into the blood stream.
Molecular imaging and scans follow to see whether the radio peptide has latched on of the tumour sites correctly.
The entire session usually lasts for about 4 hrs and is often done as an out patient procedure.
The main goals of PRRT hence are to provide symptom relief, to stop or slow tumor progression and to improve overall survival.
Advantages of PRRT ?
PRRT along with other molecular therapies or targeted therapies offer excellent results as they are tailor made keeping in mind molecular properties of the tumour and also biologic characteristics of the patient.
PRRT is offered in Germany , USA, UK and other developed countries at a significant cost, In India, a single session of PRRT costs approx USD 6300.
Get in touch with us for a second opinion on cancer treatment, write to us on email@example.com or send us a query
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